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Dehkhoda PersianPersian Dictionary



Dehkhoda Great Dictionary, first published in 1931, is a comprehensive dictionary that contains the description and meaning of Persian language vocabulary. The dictionary is the greatest and most important work of Ali Akbar Dehkhoda (1879-1956), who spent over 40 years on collecting and organizing the material.




Dehkhoda PersianPersian Dictionary



His work includes a significant number of Arabic loanwords as well as their meaning, commentary, and historical description. The dictionary contains the literary vocabulary of Persian language, with its meaning and the application in poetry. However, it does not contain much of the Persian scientific and technical vocabulary. This kind of vocabulary was mostly created after the dictionary was written. The current edition consists of 67,265 pages - each page includes three columns and it has around 350,000 entries.


About half of the dictionary are words with explanation of their meaning, and the other half is historical and geographical proper names. This dictionary holds all words of the manuscript and printed Persian dictionaries with corrections. It includes many words of Turkish, Mongolian, Hindi, Arabic, French, English, German, Russian and other languages that were used in Persian. To read the entries correctly, diacritics are used. The author also included a full course of Persian grammar.


The dictionary allows accessing information about Persian vocabulary and terms with roots in Iranian, Arabic, Turkish, Mongolian, Indian as well as European languages. The dictionary also provides pronunciation, etymology, derivation, and compounds.


Hassan Amid firstly, in 1954, published a dictionary titled Farhang-e No (فرهنگِ نو, meaning New Dictionary) that had 936 pages. Later on, in 1963, he published the most complete dictionary, Amid Dictionary (فرهنگِ عمید), that included 1114 pages.


The dictionary describes pronunciation and the language of origin, some of the entries include pictures and photos. Also, the dictionary almost does not cover the names of places, cities, authors, and artists.


The glossary has two main editions: the eight-volume Great Edition (large dictionary) published in 2003, and the two-volume Small Edition (compact dictionary). The second piece does not cover the etymology of the words and does not include colloquial and archaic words.


فرهنگ روز سخن (Farhang-e Ruz-e Soxan) published in 2010 is a one-volume monolingual dictionary which is comprised of common words and expression of the Persian language and includes less scientific entries.


Contemporary Dictionary of Persian is a monolingual Persian dictionary compiled by Gholamhossein Sadri-Afshar (1935-2018), in cooperation with Nasrin and Nastaran Hakamis (Hakami sisters). The dictionary won Iran's Book of the Year Award in 2000.


It was published in 2009-2010 by Iran Language Institute. The dictionary has 1,230 pages and includes over 5,000 records. It targets foreign language learners of Persian. The glossary is written in an easy to read, and simple language and includes many examples.


The dictionary includes 35,000 words and terms common in the Persian language. It is divided into 22 chapters and 1,250 categories. The terms are sorted by subject and their meaning relationships, and not in alphabetical order. One of the significant features of the dictionary is collocation. The authors have used around 5,000 examples in the dictionary. This one-volume dictionary has 2,080 pages.


Iranian linguist Ali Ashraf Sadeghi (1941- ) is the senior editor of this dictionary. Some of the features of the dictionary are: it is based on computer text corpus, it is comprehensive and includes all eras of Persian language, it is etymological, it includes modern scientific terms as well as new words approved by APLL.


The dictionary includes 5,000 most frequent Persian words and is based on alphabetical order. The glossary provides with term's part of speech, examples, and the English equivalents. The dictionary also includes a CD.


Parsi Wiki is an online monolingual dictionary with a purpose to develop an online Persian glossary based on the dictionary of the late Ali Akbar Dehkhoda as well as new words in Persian language. The software provides the possibility to expand Persian vocabulary by editors.


Manouchehr Moshiri was born in Colappa, Hamedan, to Ismail Moshiri and Roghayyeh Minoobakhsh. Manouchehr spent his younger years in Hamedan and later Tehran the capital city. He graduated from Tehran University as socialist Researcher and later from Iran Governments Television and Radio University in cinema (camera-works). Among his early efforts as director and camera-man were: Qorveh (1979), Our story (1979), Story of Pain (1979), as Director, Camera-man and producer: Farming in Damghan [2 Episodes] (1980), With Earth to Earth (1980), earth-Pain-Germination (1981), as Director, Writer and Camera-man: Mountain Life (1983), Main Shahreqord Mosque (1383), as Director, Camera-man, researcher and writer: Shahreqord Roof of Iran (1984), Where is my Home? (1984), as director, Camera-man and researcher: Seven Days Dating, Two Years Experience [2 Episodes] (1984), Joint work with Rakhshan Bani Etemad: Report 71 (1992), From Spring to Spring (1985), Joint work with Rakhshan Bani Etemad and Pirooz kalantari: Who Do You show This Movies To? (1986), as director, Camera-man, producer and designer: The World is My Home (1986) a biographical movie about well-known Iranian poet Nima Yushij. After Nima Yushij, he continued making biographical movies by: Remember the Dead Candle about great researcher and creator of a famous Persian language Dictionary Dr. Mohammad Moin (1994). Next, he continued with another biographical movie You cannot Imagine the Pain of love I Experienced a bibliography movie about another well-known Iranian researcher and creator of few volumes Persian dictionary Ali Akbar Dehkhoda (1995). After making educational documentary series called: Basics of Debate (1995) as Producer, Director and designer and From Dust (1995) as director, Camera-man and researcher, he continued creating biographical movies with Geography of Love about Abbas Sahab, Father of Iran's geography as director, camera-man and designer (1997) and Language of Silence about Dr. Badrozzaman Qarib (1998) as Director, Camera-man and designer. Next he continued with with Pants kindness about Dr. Ahmad Qahraman (1999). Between Biographical movies, he made another Documentary series [10 Episodes] named Peace with Mathematics. He then returned back to his favorite genre which is Biographical movies with a movie about Dr. Mohammad hassan Ganji named Last Rain of the Year (2000) and A Greater Love about Dr. Bahadori Nejad (2001) as Director. Next he made his 26th movie about Dr. Abdulkarim Qarib named A research on Earth's mysteries (2003). Moshiri then made a movie as writer, director and scene designer about Dr. Parviz Shahriari named Love to Teach (2003) and The Furious Silent about Well-Known Poet Molana (Roami). His next biographical movie as director and writer was about Dr. Kamaluddin Jinab (2004) and another about Dr. Abolqasem Siah Qalam named Nostalgic as Bud (2004). He create an industrial documentary about Khuzestan's Alloy Steel (2005) before his next biographical movie Love is Most Valuable about Dr. Seyyed Jaffar Shahidi (2006). His other movie about Dr. Shahidi was: ... and i am the diver, Sea Tavern (2007). Moshiri Continued his active Film making life with his 34th Movie called: and i Left my Youth back in Inqilab (Revolution) Street (2007). Next he worked on another biographical movie about Mohammad Ali Amir Jahid named Thousand stories of Amir Jahid (2008). Love and Pen is his 37th documentary about Professor Fazlollah Reza (2005-2008) and another Biographical movie on Dr. Mohammad hassan ganji named Hundred Years (2011) as Director, Researcher, Producer and Designer. Beside his Films and Biographical movies, Moshiri founded the first Iranian Workshop on Documentary with help of Iran's Association of Documentary Directors, which held by participating young documentary makers from all around the country in Tehran. Few Iranian well-known Documentary movie makers, have been studied in this institute, like: Mohammad Baqeri, Loqman Khaliqi and Mahmoud Rahmani.


Meʿyār-e jamālī (comp. 744-45/1343-44) by Šams-e Faḵrī Eṣfahānī is a dictionary of 1,580 entries, including corrupt forms, arranged on the model of Lōḡat-e fors; all supporting verses are composed by the author. It was used by Wafāʾī, Enjū Šīrāzī, Sorūrī, ʿAbd-al-Rašīd Tatavī, and Awbahī.


Madār al-afāżel of Allāhdād Fayżī Serhendī (comp. 1001/1592) is a detailed dictionary comprising 12,000 entries arranged according to the first and then final letters. The author mentions as his sources Tājayn, (i.e.,Tāj al-maṣāder of Bayhaqī and Tāj al-lōḡa of Jawharī or the annonymous Tāj al-asmāʾ), Ṣorāhá, Mohaḏḏab al-asmāʾ, Qonyat al fetyān for Arabic and on Zafān-egūyā, Adāt al-fożalāʾ, Šaraf-nāma-ye Monyarī, Moʾayyed al-fożalāʾ, etc. for Persian words. Some definitions are provided with supporting verses (Dabīrsīāqī, pp. 101-02).


Bahār-e ʿAjam is a dictionary of about 10,000 entries, including a considerable number of idioms and expressions, in alphabetical order, compiled in 1152/1739 by Tīk Čand Bahār. In his introduction the author mentions as his source about 100 dīvāns and correspondence collections of the Persian and Indian poets of the Safavid period.


Farhang-e Wafāʾī or Resāla-ye Ḥosayn Wafāʾī (comp. 933/1526) by Ḥosayn Wafāʾī is based mainly on Ṣehāḥ al-fors. The author has also used Meʿyār-e jamālī, the dictionary of Šams-al-Dīn Moḥammad Kašmīrī and some other sources for a limited number of entries. Another dictionary written in the same period is Toḥfat al-aḥbāb, compiled in 936/1529 by the calligrapher Solṭān-ʿAlī Awbahī for Saʿd-al-Dīn Mašhadī, the vizier of Khorasan. It comprises 2,483 entries arranged according to their first and last letters respectively. The entries are almost the same as those recorded by Asadī, plus a number of corrupt forms. The examples are also the same as those quoted by Asadī, besides some verses by later poets (Anwarī, Sūzanī, Sanāʾī, Kamāl-al-Dīn Esmāʿīl, Moʿezzī, etc.). No source is cited by the author (Dabīrsīāqī, pp. 74-78).


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